Calcium (Ca) and vitamin D nutritional status effects on oral health were evaluated in 85 healthy women aged between 20 and 30 years (24.6±0.4). They attended the first year of the Nutrition Carrier at the Private University (ISALUD, Buenos Aires, Argentine). Usual Ca intake (CaI) was determined by a food-frequency questionnaire that included consumption of dairy products and calcium-enriched foods. Blood samples were obtained in a fasting state in winter: the end of August and the 15th September. Serum biochemical analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), Ca, phosphorus (P), bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and intact parathormone (iPTH) were assessed. Dental status was determined by a full odontogram including the total number of teeth and the decayed (D), missing (M), and filled (F) teeth (DMFT) index. M and D components evaluated teeth loss and the presence of caries respectively. The Plack Index Löe Silness (PI) was also evaluated.
Results: As a results of a low milk products the median CaI was lower than 600 mg/day (498 (381; 792)). Only 24% cover Ca the recommendation of 800 mg/day; 17% had a CaI <800 mg/day and 59% had a deficient CaI (<600 mg/day). Mean biochemical parameters were within normal ranges: iPTH levels: 39.2±4.9 pg/ml; Ca: 9.4±0.2 mg/dl; and P: 4.0±0.3 mg/dl. A total of 7 and 3% of women had Ca and P levels below normal values respectively. Nobody had PTH, Ca and P levels higher than the reference range. The mean 25OHD levels were 25.0±1.0 ng/ml. Only 29% had 25 OHD ≥30 ng/ml; a 71% had levels <30 ng/ml: 39% between 21 and 29 ng/ml and 32% <20 ng/ml and a 15% had levels <10 ng/ml. The 100% of the students had chronic gingivitis. The 3% had at least one missing teeth and 20% had the mouth affected by caries. The D component of DMFT increased as CaI decreased; the higher M component and PI was observed when CaI was <600 mg/day. The lower D component and PI was observed when 25OHD was >30 ng/ml.
Conclusion: The results of the present cross-sectional study in young student women evidenced a high cariogenic activity and a great severity of oral disease. This effect was related to a low CaI and vitamin D nutritional status. This finding underscores the necessity of nutrition intervention specifically designed to increase milk or milk products as a nutritional strategy to preserve the natural dentition that improves the quality of life and to prevent the development of future oral pathologies.
17 May 2014 - 20 May 2014